Part II: Signatories recognise that

next »Article 3

Cardiovascular disease is a multi-factorial condition and that it is essential that all risk factors and determinants are addressed at societal and individual levels.

Characteristics associated with cardiovascular health include:

  • No use of tobacco,
  • Adequate physical activity – at least 30 minutes 5 times a week,
  • Healthy eating habits,
  • No overweight,
  • Blood pressure below 140/90,
  • Blood cholesterol below 5 mmol/L (190mg/dl)
  • Normal glucose metabolism,
  • Avoidance of excessive stress.

next »Article 4

Risk factors associated with risk of cardiovascular events can be divided into three categories:

Biological Lifestyle determinants Broader determinants
Fixed Modifiable
Raised blood pressure Tobacco use Age Income
Raised blood sugar Unhealthy diet Sex Education
Raised blood cholesterol Alcohol abuse Genetics Living conditions
Overweight/obesity Physical inactivity Ethnicity Working Conditions

next »Article 5

Risk factors can be addressed:

  • by policy makers through providing supportive environments whether through legislative, including on taxation and marketing, or other measures,
  • by individuals through behaviours favouring healthy diets, being smoke-free and engaging in regular physical activity,
  • and by health professionals through advocacy and identification and treatment of people at high risk.

next »Article 6

A life course approach to these risk factors is required starting in childhood.

next »Article 7

The burden of established cardiovascular disease may also be reduced by early diagnosis, appropriate disease management, rehabilitation and prevention, including structured lifestyle counselling.

next »Article 8

There is a need to be sensitive to gender-specific aspects of cardiovascular health and disease.

Continue to PART III : SIGNATORIES AGREE TO (Articles 9 - 18) ›


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